pests of tamarind

pests of tamarind

The dehydrated fruits are easily recognized when picking by their comparatively light weight, hollow sound when tapped and the cracking of the shell under gentle pressure. Pests and Diseases. To certain Burmese, the tree represents the dwelling-place of the rain god and some hold the belief that the tree raises the temperature in its immediate vicinity. The simplest home method of preparing the ade is to shell the fruits, place 3 or 4 in a bottle of water, let stand for a short time, add a tablespoonful of sugar and shake vigorously. For shipment to processors, tamarinds may be shelled, layered with sugar in barrels and covered with boiling sirup. In Java, the salted pulp is rolled into balls, steamed and sun-dried, then exposed to dew for a week before being packed in stone jars. The tree bears abundantly up to an age of 50-60 years or sometimes longer, then productivity declines, though it may live another 150 years. The resulting mash is then passed through a screen while nylon brushes separate the shells and seeds. Ripe tamarind fruit have proven medicinal value. Tamarind ade has long been a popular drink in the Tropics and it is now bottled in carbonated form in Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico and elsewhere. STORED GRAIN PESTS In India, post-harvest losses caused by unscientific storage, insects, rodents, micro-organisms etc., account for about 10 per cent of total food grains. The tamarind is a long-lived medium growth tree, which attain a maximum crown height of 12 to 18 meters (40-60) feet. It is, further, administered to alleviate sunstroke, Datura poisoning, and alcoholic intoxication. The seeded pulp is then shaped into balls and coated with powdered sugar. Tamarind leaves and flowers are useful as mordants in dyeing. Rots attacking the tree include saprot, Xylaria euglossa, brownish saprot, Polyporus calcuttensis, and white rot, Trametes floccosa. White grubs of Holotrichia insularis may feed on the roots of young seedlings. Tamarind fruits are used for fresh consumption and for the preparation of … Mexican studies reveal that the fruits begin to dehydrate 203 days after fruit-set, losing approximately 1/2 moisture up to the stage of full ripeness, about 245 days from fruit-set. Another mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, is less of a menace except in South India where it is common on many fruit trees and ornamental plants. Unfortunately, the specific name, "indica", also perpetuates the illusion of Indian origin. Bark from young trees yields a low-quality fiber used for twine and string. Fruit pulp: in West Africa, an infusion of the whole pods is added to the dye when coloring goat hides. It is an important ingredient in chutneys, curries and sauces, including some brands of Worcestershire and barbecue sauce, and in a special Indian seafood pickle called "tamarind fish". The tender, immature, very sour pods are cooked as seasoning with rice, fish and meats in India. Tamarind preparations are universally recognized as refrigerants in fevers and as laxatives and carminatives. In making fruit preserves, tamarind is sometimes combined with guava, papaya or banana. The wood is valued for fuel, especially for brick kilns, for it gives off an intense heat, and it also yields a charcoal for the manufacture of gun-powder. In India there are extensive tamarind orchards producing 275,500 tons (250,000 MT) annually. and cultural and chemical control of insect pests of tamarind; a list of over 50 species is appended. The honey is golden-yellow and slightly acid in flavor. Tamarind leaves in boiling water are employed to bleach the leaves of the buri palm (Corypha elata Roxb.) The species is found throughout Australia but does not survive well at high temperatures and is therefore a more serious problem in cooler areas with mild summers. In all tropical and near-tropical areas, including South Florida, it is grown as a shade and fruit tree, along roadsides and in dooryards and parks. Formulas for the commercial production of spiced tamarind beverages have been developed by technologists in India. Tamarind seeds remain viable for months, will germinate in a week after planting. In northwestern India, the tree grows well but the fruits do not ripen. Alone, or in combination with lime juice, honey, milk, dates, spices or camphor, the pulp is considered effective as a digestive, even for elephants, and as a remedy for biliousness and bile disorders, and as an antiscorbutic. The European supply has come largely from Calcutta, Egypt and the Greater Antilles. endstream endobj startxref Tamarind leaves and flowers, dried or boiled, are used as poultices for swollen joints, sprains and boils. 0 Tamarind tree is susceptible to pests like scales, mealy bugs, aphids and fruit borers. %%EOF Very young trees should be protected from cold but older trees are surprisingly hardy. The fine silk is considered superior for embroidery. The tree has long been naturalized in the East Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Tamarind is a multipurpose tree: its leaves, roots and immature pods are consumed as vegetables. The pulp is marketed in northern Malaya and to some extent wherever the tree is found even if there are no plantations. Tamarind sherbet and ice cream are popular and refreshing. Dr. Henry Nehrling reported that a tamarind tree in his garden at Gotha, Florida, though damaged by freezes, always sprouted out again from the roots. One of the major pests of the tamarind tree in India is the Oriental yellow scale, Aonidiella orientalis. Pickers are not allowed to knock the fruits off with poles as this would damage developing leaves and flowers. Hindus may marry a tamarind tree to a mango tree before eating the fruits of the latter. However, no cold damage was noted in South Florida following the low temperatures of the winter of 1957-1958 which had severe effects on many mango, avocado, lychee and lime trees. The mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus, is a leading pest of tamarind in India, causing leaf-fall and sometimes shedding of young fruits. In the past, the great bulk of seeds available as a by-product of processing tamarinds, has gone to waste. In Mayaguez, street vendors sell cones of shaved ice saturated with tamarind sirup. The tamarind tree originates from Madagascar. The leaves are normally evergreen but may be shed briefly in very dry areas during the hot season. The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica bores into stored seeds. Sugared tamarind pulp is often prepared as a confection. A yellow dye derived from the leaves colors wool red and turns indigo-dyed silk to green. If twice as much water as tamarinds is used in cooking, the strained product will be a sirup rather than a sauce. Another mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, is less of a menace except in South India where it is common on many fruit trees and ornamental plants. To store for long periods, the blocks of pulp may be first steamed or sun-dried for several days.

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