doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.04.008, Chao, A., and Bunge, J. 12, 281–289. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1500861, Mills, J. P., Rao, K., and Young, V. B. (2018). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. doi: 10.3390/toxins8050134, Edgar, R. C. (2013). FIGURE 3. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002199107, Quigley, E. M., Stanton, C., and Murphy, E. F. (2013). 922,521 paired-end reads were generated, and 718,403 sequences (31235 reads per sample) were available for down-stream analysis after data processing and quality control. * (2017). 233, 260–268. This speciesis considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. 84, 2317–2323. Fax: +86 (0591) 87864153 Compared to the CDI group, the mean relative weight loss of mice in the LI05 group was significantly lower on day 3 of (LI05 group: 94.01 ± 4.59 vs. CDI group, P < 0.01). (2014). Next, the culture was centrifuged at 3200 × g for 10 min at 4°C. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00150.2016, Kostova, Z., Batsalova, T., Moten, D., Teneva, I., and Dzhambazov, B. In our study, the administration of P. pentosaceus LI05 significantly reduced the inflammatory response in colonic tissues. In the early 2000s, the emergency of a hypervirulent strain, NAP1/BI/027, secretes a third toxin (binary toxin, CDT), which may result in poor prognosis (O’Connor et al., 2009; Chitnis et al., 2013). Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Upper panel: Left, immunohistochemistry; Right, the percent positive area was illustrated by Image J. NC, normal control; CDI, C. difficile infected; LI05, P. pentosaceus LI05 treated. J. Med. The cultures were centrifuged to pellet the cells for 10 min at 5000 × g and 4°C, washed with sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.2) twice and resuspended in the same buffer. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells. with the reproduced material. At the family level, the relative abundance of Porphyromonadaceae (LI05 group 65.89% ± 7.49 vs. CDI group 20.41% ± 26.73) and Rikenellaceae (LI05 group 1.46% ± 1.66 vs. CDI group 0.11% ± 0.20) in LI05 group compared to the CDI group (q < 0.05), while, the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (LI05 group 3.86% ± 2.92 vs. CDI group 20.25% ± 11.89, q < 0.05) were decreased in LI05 group (Figure 5D). Particularly, our results demonstrated that P. pentosaceus LI05 administration inhibited the NF-κB phosphorylation, decreased the intestinal inflammatory response, and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory genes and inflammatory cytokine, including TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β, MIP-1α in the LI05 group. (N = 7–8 per group) (A,B) PCoA plot of the microbiota among three groups based on unweighted UniFrac metric (A) and weighted UniFrac metric (B). Nat. Pediococcus pentosaceus is important probiotics in Chinese Laomian. Samples were then embedded in paraffin and sliced into 4-μm thick sections on a microtome (RM2016, Leica, Shanghai). Bar charts represented the expression of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 levels as well as the MIP-1β, MCP-1, G-CSF, TNF-α, and RANTES levels among the examined groups (N = 8 per group). Lancet Infect. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197803092981003, Bianco, M., Fedele, G., Quattrini, A., Spigaglia, P., Barbanti, F., Mastrantonio, P., et al. Med. Risk factors for CDI include the use of broad spectrum antibiotics and older age (Bartlett et al., 1978; Chalmers et al., 2016). Ragweed-allergic subjects have decreased serum levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 out of the pollen season.
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