In Hungary, sweet yellow capsicum – along with tomatoes – are the main ingredient of lecsó. A few of the non-domesticated species are 2n=2x=32. Pepper Production [Internet]. The amount of capsaicin in the fruit is highly variable and dependent on genetics and environment, giving almost all types of Capsicum varied amounts of perceived heat. Fresh peppers may encounter contaminated water, soil, and/or equipment during production, harvest, and post-harvest putting them at risk for microbial contamination; however, few foodborne illness outbreaks have been attributed to specifically to bell peppers. Peppers may have a food-grade wax applied to reduce moisture loss and prevent bruising during shipping and storage. This is dependent on daily temperatures and cultivar selection. Bell Peppers Crop Guide | Small Acreage Horticultural Crops [Internet]. While bell peppers are classically considered a non-starchy vegetable, botanical definition classify them a fruit. This is dependent on daily temperatures and cultivar selection. CO They have a thin skin exocarp and fleshy mesocarp and membranous endocarp bearing many seeds. In Polish, the term pieprz (pepper) instead means only grains or ground black pepper (incl. Bell Peppers Recalled Due to Salmonella Risk [Internet]. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. Capsicum fruits of several varieties with commercial value are called by various European-language names in English, such as jalapeño, peperoncini, and peperoncito; many of these are usually sold pickled. Beach C. 2016 Salmonella outbreak revealed this week by CDC, FDA [Internet]. Plants are generally planted 8–16 inches apart. , In 2005, a poll of 2,000 people revealed the capsicum to be Britain's fourth-favourite culinary vegetable.. Additionally, diammonium phosphate provides nitrogen and phosphorous to the crop, and single and triple superphosphate serve as phosphorus fertilizer inputs. The top states for bell pepper production in descending order are California, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Ohio, New Jersey, Michigan, and New York. :13. The generic name may come from Latin capsa, meaning 'box', presumably alluding to the pods; or from the Greek word κάπτω kapto, 'to gulp'. Greenhouse-grown bell peppers are available year-round. They can be eaten in salads, like shopska salata; fried and then covered with a dip of tomato paste, onions, garlic, and parsley; or stuffed with a variety of products, such as minced meat and rice, beans, or cottage cheese and eggs. In French, capsicum is called poivron for sweet varieties and piment for hot ones.  The secretion of capsaicin protects the fruit from consumption by insects and mammals, while the bright colors attract birds that will disperse the seeds. Bell peppers are harvested by hand when they are full, firm, and of desired color. A majority (72%) of bell pepper imports to the U.S. are sourced from Mexico. http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/econbot/frs/caan.ht... http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Fruit, http://waynesword.palomar.edu/fruitid1.htm. In Switzerland, though, the condiment powder made from capsicum is called Paprika (German language regions) and paprica (French and Italian language region). A pepo is the fruit of things like squash and pumpkins. fasciculatum Irish. Jamaican) curries. The top producing countries, listed in descending order, are China, Mexico, Turkey, and Indonesia. Meeting the fertility needs of a pepper crop is essential.  There are also other peppers without capsaicin, mostly within the Capsicum annuum species, such as the cultivars Giant Marconi, Yummy Sweets, Jimmy Nardello, and Italian Frying peppers (also known as the Cubanelle). Paprika (in English) refers to a powdered spice made of dried Capsicum of several sorts, though in Hungary and some other countries it is the name of the fruit as well. Peppers, like many other solanaceous crops, are vulnerable to water stress during anthesis because it leads to poor pollination of its flowers. Bell peppers may be grown in fields, greenhouses, or high tunnels. They can also be added, finely chopped, to gazpacho as a garnish. One medium bell pepper provides approximately 25 Calories, six grams carbohydrates, no fat, and 1 gram of protein. In addition to these properties, pepper’s carotenoids have been suggested to be cardioprotective and act in reducing chronic inflammation and LDL-c oxidation, hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Aggie Horticulture. Traceback identified that peppers contamination likely occurred on the farm, possibly due to irrigation water, however product-tracing efforts were limited by product and shipment documentation. Figure 3. The crop is most productive in a sunny location with a long growing season, with day temperatures between 75° and 85°F and night temperatures between 50° and 60°F. Pepper in vegetable oils, or as an horticultural product can be used in gardening as a natural insecticide. Bell peppers can differ by color in their amounts of vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. Capsicum consists of 20–27 species, five of which are domesticated: C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. In northern India and Pakistan, C. annuum is also commonly called shimla mirch in the local language and as "Kodai Mozhagai" in Tamil which roughly translates to "umbrella chilli" due to its appearance. In Canada, Ireland, South Africa and the United Kingdom, the heatless varieties are commonly known simply as "peppers" (or more specifically "green peppers", "red peppers", etc. A small-acreage market grower could expect to spend about 16 hours a week laboring during harvest. Many vegetable seed companies breed different types of peppers as well. Only Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. are Generally recognized as safe.. Linus Pauling Institute. Most mammals find this unpleasant, whereas birds are unaffected. It is hypothesized that the center of origin for Capsicum is Bolivia, whereas non-pungent pepper varieties are said to have originated from Central America and southern Mexico. Among these individuals, no deaths and 52 hospitalizations were reported. Peru is thought to be the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity since varieties of all five domesticates are commonly sold in markets in contrast to other countries. Many pepper crops are also under plasticulture, which refers to a cultivation technique of combining drip tape (drip irrigation) with a plastic mulch on top of the bed. Capsicum fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. The average one-cup serving of peppers contains 117 mg of vitamin C, which is twice the amount in a typical orange. India is the top producer of pungent peppers. The per capita consumption of bell peppers was 11.4 pounds in 2017, a six percent increase from 2015. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". In more recent times, an aerosol extract of capsaicin, usually known as capsicum or pepper spray, has become used by law enforcement as a nonlethal means of incapacitating a person, and in a more widely dispersed form for riot control, or by individuals for personal defense. Peppers are placed into bins in the field during harvest. Testing revealed black and red pepper used in salami products by Daniele International, Inc as the source of the outbreak, leading to a recall in late January 2010.
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