Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. At this point, it seems that Philo has shown that the argument from design is manifestly invalid. Hume presents three characters, each of whom represent a different position on this issue, engaged in a dialogue together. It is therefore almost random to choose the analogy between the universe and a machine. Philo and Cleanthes proceed to argue about whether there is enough resemblance between objects humans create and objects in nature to conclude that natural objects must have a designer and creator like human-made objects do. The main idea behind teleological arguments is that various objects and systems in the universe have precise functions and purposes as if they were intentionally designed to complete specific tasks. "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Study Guide." First, the analogy between the universe and a machine is weak, for he claims that the world does not really resemble a machine all that well. December 6, 2019. The only real point of disagreement, he continues, is how strong this resemblance really is; what separates the atheist from the theist is only a question over the degree of analogy between man and God. Cleanthes disagrees with Demea and Philo. Demea despairs that Philo and Cleanthes seem to be treating the existence of God as if it were not a clear and indisputable fact. Second, the universe and a machine are not strictly analogous phenomena because they are not independently existing entities, rather the universe is a whole and a machine is a part of it. Because Hume is an empiricist (i.e. God, must be similar to a human designer, only much more perfect, in proportion with the greater perfection of his art. No proofs a priori!" He believes, in fact, that we cannot ever know the nature of God at all because God's nature is inherently beyond the capacity of human comprehension. On the other hand, intelligent design arguments claim that the successful characteristics of living creatures appear all at once, because of the handiwork of an intelligent creator. The Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Community Note includes chapter-by-chapter summary and analysis, character list, theme list, historical context, author biography and quizzes written by community members like you. In this way, natural objects, such as plants and planets, resemble human-made objects, such as, skyscrapers and submarines. Second, the analogy between the universe and a machine does not necessarily work because it is not an analogy between two separately existing entities, but between the universe as a whole and certain parts of the universe (i.e. Most relevantly, we know that wherever there is a machine, there is some intelligent designer behind it. Course Hero, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Study Guide," December 6, 2019, accessed November 26, 2020, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Dialogues-Concerning-Natural-Religion/. Demea disapproves of Cleanthes's arguments, complaining that it is inappropriate to say that God resembles humans. "This, I hope," Demea says, is not by any means a question among us." Philo also argues that it is not true that all order we experience is caused by intelligence that we can sense. A dandelion seed moves across the land by taking advantage of the wind to spread dandelions across the land. The argument from design seems to be an argument by analogy, but it does not work even under this rubric. Course Hero.
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