This has helped increase the amount of food available while reducing waste. Several key points highlighted in the film are: This NPR story asks us to consider the following: "Cropland and pasture now cover 40 percent of our planet's land surface; farming consumes nearly three-quarters of all the water that humans use for any purpose; farming accounts for a third of all the emissions of greenhouse gases that humans release into the environment. Workers may develop acute and chronic lung disease, musculoskeletal injuries, and may catch infections that transmit from animals to human beings. Industrial crops are not just vast acres of corn and soybeans in the Midwest, grown for animal feed, ethanol and processed food. How Did Tucker Smith Get Sponsors for Bass Fishing? Zertuche-Gonzalez, C. Yarish, and C. Neefus, Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: a key toward sustainability. Others point to the era in which the key chemical components of plant nutrients - nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus (NPK) were identified and ultimately synthesized to produce commercial fertilizers as a pivotal point of change. Industrial agriculture refers to a process of mechanizing the growing, harvesting, and processing of food. The methods of industrial agriculture are technoscientific, economic, and political. Its hallmarks are mechanization and reliance on inputs like nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and intensive irrigation. Plowing and fertilizers were introduced to deal with these problems - but once again involved longer hours of work and degradation of soil resources (Ester Boserup. Industrial agriculture has helped create new ways to transport, store, and process food, allowing these products to last longer without going bad. A 2005 study estimated that the price of US reliance on pesticides has been $10 billion in environmental and societal costs. 23 Externalities, though, are very real costs that someone ends up paying – cleaning water so that it is drinkable or buying bottled water, or the cost of treating diabetes, for example. At that time of the year, the rut is usually over, the weather is extremely cold, and most often our area has snow. The scale on which agricultural projects take place has ballooned since the 1950s.  As farming has consolidated, with some farms getting much bigger and the rest closing down, the downtown businesses that relied on them have shuttered as well. "The percentage of U.S. disposable income spent on food prepared at home decreased, from 22 percent as late as 1950 to 7 percent by the end of the century.". The average daily sodium intake around the world is 3400mg). Runoff from manure and other agricultural fertilizer is a significant pollutant in many waterways, but sustainable farming practices do not contribute to this pollution. The term “industrial agriculture” refers to the type of farming which raises and cultivates large numbers of livestock and plants in high-density environments. On the other hand, industrial agriculture has not solved hunger, either worldwide – where 795 million people (one in nine) are undernourished – or in the US, where nearly 16 million (12.7 percent) of households experienced food insecurity in 2015. Also noted in "Industrial Agriculture: Features": "A key feature of industrial agriculture is its cultivation of a single crop for food, feed, fiber, or fuel purposes, a practice called monoculture. Ronald L. Plain, "Trends in U.S. Swine Industry," (U.S. Meat Export Federation Conference, 1997). The rationale for the industrialization of agriculture was the need to ensure a cheap, safe food supply for a rapidly growing US and world population. More docile breeds are sought (with natural dominant behaviors bred out for example), physical restraints to stop interaction, such as individual cages for chickens, or animals physically modified, such as the de-beaking of chickens to reduce the harm of fighting. ", A study done for the US. HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. If farmers couldn’t survive the price drops, Butz encouraged them to “get big or get out.” And so they did: the number of farms dropped from nearly 4.8 million in 1954 to two million in 2014. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. A 2005 study estimated $10 billion in environmental and societal costs (including public health impacts, ecosystem losses, pollinator problems and more) just from the US reliance on pesticides; the agriculture industry would look quite different if pesticide companies and users were responsible for these costs. What happens on the farm is but the beginning of the industrialized system of global food production that has emerged in the latter half of the 20th Century. Across the country, there are plenty of lakes to choose from for a lucrative ice fishing experience, complete with beautiful views.