carbonic anhydrase structure

carbonic anhydrase structure

The most prevalent CAs are those in the chloroplast, cytosol, and mitochondria. 2fw4: Carbonic anhydrase activators. … In this review, the number and types of CAs in C3, C4, and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants are considered, and the roles of the α and γCAs are briefly discussed. Several forms of carbonic anhydrase occur in nature. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [7] The crystal structure of the human CA1-bicarbonate anion complex reveals the geometry of two H-bonds between the Glu106-Thr199 pair and the Glu117-His119 pair, and one pi H-bond between a water molecule and the phenyl ring of the Tyr114 residue. Higher plants contain three evolutionarily distinct CA families, αCAs, βCAs, and γCAs, where each family is represented by multiple isoforms in all species. It is involved in processes connected with acid–base homeostasis, respiration, and photosynthesis. [15], As CA1 is an important therapeutic target, development of its inhibitors will contribute to disease treatment. This variant of the zinc metalloenzyme appears to be unique in that it possesses esterase activity that is specifically enhanced by added free zinc ions. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Among the six genetic families known to date, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs, detailed kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies have allowed a deep understanding of the structure-function relationship in this superfamily of proteins. The X-ray crystal structure of human isoform II in adduct with an adamantyl analogue of acetazolamide resides in a less utilized binding pocket than most hydrophobic inhibitors. This diversity in location is paralleled in the many physiological and biochemical roles that CAs play in plants. [12] In diabetic mellitus type 2 patients with postinfarct heart failure who were undergoing surgical coronary revascularization, myocardial levels of CA1 were sixfold higher than nondiabetic patients. [12] Transmembrane transport of CA-produced bicarbonate contributes significantly to cellular pH regulation. 1AZM, 1BZM, 1CRM, 1CZM, 1HCB, 1HUG, 1HUH, 1J9W, 1JV0, 2CAB, 2FOY, 2FW4, 2IT4, 2NMX, 2NN1, 2NN7, 3LXE, 3W6H, 3W6I, 4WR7, 4WUP, 4WUQ, Carbonic anhydrase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA1 gene.[5][6]. Protein target information for Carbonic anhydrase 1 (human). doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-0659-8_1. PMID 827930. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. [12], CA1 also mediates hemorrhagic retinal and cerebral vascular permeability through prekallikrein activation and serine protease factor XIIa generation. Elevated CA1 expression was mainly localized in the cardiac interstitium and endothelial cells. The turnover rate and catalytic rate of CA1 are only about 10% that of CA2 (Kcat: 1.4×106 s−1, Kcat/Km: 1.5×108 M−1s−1). CA1 is closely linked to CA2 and CA3 genes on chromosome 8, and it encodes a cytosolic protein which is found at the highest level in erythrocytes. So the Glu117-His119 H-bond is considered to regulate the ionicity of the zinc ion and the binding strength of the bicarbonate anion.[8]. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Carbonic Anhydrase in Action The alpha carbonic anhydrase enzymes have been well studied, leading to an understanding of how they work. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the interconversion of CO2and HCO3−and are ubiquitous in nature. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Plant Carbonic Anhydrases: Structures, Locations, Evolution, and Physiological Roles, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2016.09.001. Higher plants contain three evolutionarily distinct CA families, αCAs, βCAs, and γCAs, where each family is represented by multiple isoforms in all species. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Carbonic anhydrase (CA; carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide: CO2+ H2O<-->HCO3 (-)+H+. The enzyme is the target for drugs, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorphenamide, for the treatment of glaucoma. Compared to other CA family members, CA1 has relatively low affinity to common CA inhibitors. ISBN 978-1-4757-0661-1. [6], The human CA1 protein contains an N-terminus active site, zinc binding site, and substrate-binding site. Current understanding of βCA tissue-specific expression patterns and what controls them are reviewed, and the physiological roles for which βCAs have been implicated are presented. Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc metalloenzyme, catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. III. Furthermore, high glucose-induced elevation of CA1 hampers endothelial cell permeability and determines endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro. The remainder of the review focuses on plant βCAs and includes the identification of homologs between species using phylogenetic approaches, a consideration of the inter- and intracellular localization of the proteins, along with the evidence for alternative splice forms.

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