benzene uses in medicine

benzene uses in medicine

This is of many Uses of benzene in everyday life. As benzene is ubiquitous in gasoline and hydrocarbon fuels that are in use everywhere, human exposure to benzene is a global health problem. The risk from exposure to 1 ppm for a working lifetime has been estimated to be 5 excess leukemia deaths per 1000 employees exposed. These legal limits were based on studies demonstrating compelling evidence of health risk to workers exposed to benzene. In aplastic anemia, only the empty reticular meshwork of the marrow is evident with fat cells replacing all or most of the hematopoietic tissues. [68] The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) classifies benzene as a human carcinogen. (3) What should be included in the problem list of the patient described in the case study? Am J Ind Med 1985;7:403–13. biphenyl (aka diphenyl) at higher temperature: If the raw material stream contains much non-aromatic components (paraffins or naphthenes), those are likely decomposed to lower hydrocarbons such as methane, which increases the consumption of hydrogen. In this process, the xylene stream exiting the TDP unit is approximately 90% p-xylene. However, if the patient is suffering from a hematologic abnormality, as his symptoms and laboratory evaluation suggest, he will have increased risk if benzene exposure continues. No megakaryocytes are observed. Although benzene and pyridine are structurally related, benzene cannot be converted into pyridine. Indoor air might also be contaminated by vapors from products that might contain benzene, such as gasoline, glues, paints, rubber, waxes, etc. The Nazis used benzene administered via injection as one of their many methods of killing. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies benzene as a Group A* carcinogen and has estimated that a lifetime exposure to 0.004 ppm benzene in air will result in, at most, 1 additional case of leukemia in 10,000 people exposed. [89] Benzene metabolism involves enzymes coded for by polymorphic genes. It has a pleasant odor detectable at concentrations greater than 4 parts per million (ppm). Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants are therapeutic options for leukemia and aplastic anemia, respectively. Cohort studies of benzene-exposed workers in several industries (sheet rubber manufactur ing, shoe manufacturing, rotogravure printing) have demonstrated significantly elevated risk of leukemia, predominantly acute myelogenous leukemia, but also erythroleukemia and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Projections of leukemia risk associated with occupational exposure to benzene. Although benzene is no longer added in significant quantities to most commercial products, traces of it may still be present as a contaminant. In cases of ingestion, respiratory distress may indicate pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several tests can determine exposure to benzene. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012386454300364X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978141603703310007X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978145574066600007X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128015643000080, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123786128002079, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128036785002538, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323357623000305, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128042397000214, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), The Molecular Basis of Cancer (Third Edition), The Molecular Basis of Cancer (Fourth Edition), The Role of Apoptosis-Associated Pathways as Responders to Contaminants and in Disease Progression, Systems Biology in Toxicology and Environmental Health, International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Second Edition), Neal S. Young, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski, in, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Solvents and Gases, Suryanarayana V. Vulimiri, ... Brinda Mahadevan, in, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology (Second Edition), Snyder, 2004; Rappaport et al., 2010; Smith, 2010, De Celis et al., 2000; Xing et al., 2010; Katukam et al., 2012, Xing et al., 2010; Marchetti et al., 2012, Green et al., 1978; Coate et al., 1984; Kuna et al., 1992, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. The maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG), a nonenforceable health goal that would allow an adequate margin of safety for the prevention of adverse effects, is zero benzene concentration in drinking water. John Ambre, MD, PhD; Charles Becker, MD; Jonathan Borak, MD; Joseph Cannella, MD; Alan Hall, MD; Richard J.Jackson, MD, MPH; Howard Kipen, MD; Jonathan Rodnick, MD; Brian Wummer, MD, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, A 50-year-old diesel mechanic with recurring nosebleeds, fatigue, and weight loss. Birch reduction, a non catalytic process, however selectively hydrogenates benzene to the diene. These intermediates, in turn, supply numerous sectors of the chemical industry producing pharmaceuticals, specialty chemicals, plastics, resins, dyes, and pesticides. The hydrocarbon derived from benzoic acid thus acquired the name benzin, benzol, or benzene. Although this patient has a significant aplastic anemia, it is possible for his bone marrow to recover slowly if the damage has not reached an irreversible stage. In catalytic reforming, a mixture of hydrocarbons with boiling points between 60–200 °C is blended with hydrogen gas and then exposed to a bifunctional platinum chloride or rhenium chloride catalyst at 500–525 °C and pressures ranging from 8–50 atm. [23] In 1997, benzene was detected in deep space.[24]. Home » Chemicals » Compounds » 15 Uses of Benzene in Everyday Life – Compounds. In the absence of the catalyst, benzene is impervious to hydrogen. In some systems, even the benzene-to-xylenes ratio is modified to favor xylenes. GSH is involved with the formation of phenylmercapturic acid.

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